Yes, there is a way to make NuGet Package deployments for MVC widgets in Kentico 12. In fact you can check out how MVC widgets are distributed in the Kentico Xperience Marketplace and copy the mechanism for how to create the NuGet Packages from that documentation. You could then even have a private NuGet feed for your organization if you would like to keep the widgets private for your various project needs.
Now to be honest, it's not perfect, and you may need to adjust the location of your Views, JS, and CSS to match the project architecture, but the majority of the work should be totally reusable.
If you are looking for more specific help on the creation of the NuGet package itself, just reply here and I'm sure someone can point you in the right direction.