I have an unmodified V10.0.22 copy of Goat and when I got to page like Web Analytics>All Traffic Sources > Monthly. I am getting data. One thing, I have my MVC copy setup running on IIS, not the visual studio built in server. That make my install a bit more like the Portal Engine. Kentico does write out some temp files when it does analytics. Maybe those are not able to write in your setup. Go to System>Files>Test. I would first make sure that I get all OK.
We run the Kentico code under Perforce Source control. If I do frequently have issue where Perforce has folders locked and things like thumbnail images don't write, etc in the dev stages. That is why I test code on local copy of IIS 8.5 vs the Visual Studio. I am publishing to that folder and removing some of the READ ONLY flags on folders.