Welcome to the better platform!
Kentico usually handles 'getting' content through Repeaters, either Query Repeaters (which display the content of a custom SQL Query) or other Repeaters (like page, etc).
In both cases, a repeater gets a data source (SQL query, xml, etc), and 'loops through' each row of the data source, displaying it however you like (via transformations).
In Kentico there are also many "Data Source" Web parts that allow you to define the data source separately and then attach other web parts to it (like repeaters of course).
If you are trying to, programatically in the background, insert content or configure a web part, that also can be done, however kentico is NOT like sitecore, it's better. Sitecore's mentality is everything in code, Kentico's is everything in portal (web interface), and only do Code when you need it.
I would read the article on Kentico's best practices in the Devnet, it will give you a great idea of how Kentico has built out the platform and how easy it is if you do it the right way!
Shoot me an email firstname.lastname@example.org if you get lost.