TLDR; nothing in Kentico supports this, namely because browsers don't support it.
While you could possibly accomplish this, you'd have to implement it yourself and I don't think it's worth your effort pursuing it.
Browsers don't send the screen size with normal HTTP requests. Tools like Google Analytics collect this information manually and send it to the server. However, this information can only be collected once the browser has loaded the page, which means you can't respond, with the first request to the server, with content hidden/displayed based on resolution.
What you are looking to do is exactly what media queries in CSS were designed to handle.
Your other option is load the data/HTML via XHR/Fetch on the client side once you have the resolution information. You could use MediaQuery Event Listeners to trigger something when the resolution changes.