Are your domains setup properly in the site? Do not use an alias, use the actual domain you have entered in your production sites domain. Also, only enter the domain i.e.
http(s)://domain.com, do not enter anything after it.
This could also be an issue with permissions with the production server not allowing the other server to talk to it via that particular port/request.
Could also be that you have a different license on dev/staging and all of your features are enabled and when you try to sync to production, you don't have the same license and the features are not available. So check the page(s) you're trying to sync and see what webparts and widgets are on them and verify you have a license for those to be placed on your site.