I lost the ability to debug custom scheduled task on localhost.
It looks like the Kentico instance isn't using the local dll from the bin folder.
In addition to what Brenden said, if you don't have the task enabled, when you manually run it, it should run on your localhost instead of the server.
Have you done any changes recently that could have affected this? Have you tried to clean and fully rebuild the local website? Or even re-download the code from the code repository and make a fresh build? I've noticed a couple of times that build is not updating the task dll in bin folder and hence you can't attach from VS properly.
If you're connecting to a shared development database the problem is the other "server" is processing the tasks. So what you need to do is stop that other shared website and allow the tasks to be executed on the "current" server which would be locslhost.
Thanks for your help!
I got it working with a combination of Brenden and Zachs answer.
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